The economics of the Human Diaspora is a complicated subject. Many different systems are in place based on Civilization, location, and even Society. Underneath it all is nearly post-scarcity manufacturing and energy production capability in most systems. Few systems, even the most deeply capitalistic, require people to work for basic sustenance and housing anymore. Many provide basic standards of living for the unemployed that would make the wealthy of Old Earth green with envy.
What follows are broad overviews of some of the economic models I imagined would apply.
Memetics and psychohistory have made centralized economies much more effective than they were in previous eras. The tools exist to determine what is desired or necessary by the population at large, to influence the populace to desire what it 'should' desire, and for government to organize the distribution of resources to those ends. The Soviet Union of old would have been green with envy at the competence and efficiency of habitats with this style of economics, but they often lag behind in science and technology due to lack of market forces unless there are other incentives to focus on R&D (such as warfare).
Many small groups just want to be left alone, and a combination of augmentation, replication, and transmutation allow for this to be a reality. They share everything in kind, and refuse to rely on anyone else to fulfill their needs and wants. Advanced social techniques and super-intelligence allow for them to cooperate better than ancestral humanity ever could past the hunter-gatherer stage. Many of these systems become group minds over time, but fewer than outsiders might expect.
A model that never quite manages to die off. A number of people with capital to invest gather together, create a charter to define the parameters of the organization, and apply their numbers and expertise to do their best to dominate at least one particular market or fill a particular niche. They also tend to become political blocs, offically or otherwise.
Most corporations exist to provide services that are not easily performed by digital ghosts, installing competence lenses, or using a replicator or transmutation forge. These include research and development, high-end medical services, psychohistorical analysis, and the management of intellectual property. Some particularly large manufacturing tasks, like starship construction, are done by corporations in some civilizations.
Most corporations in the modern age tend to be small and highly automated affairs, employing a small number of administrators and representatives assisted by networks of digital ghosts. These manages overseer a slightly larger number of skilled experts who do most of the actual work behind the business' success. Machines do anything menial, unless management would like to make a statement about their wealth and status by hiring actual people to do the work.
In some economies all physical goods are tied up in the defense, expansion, and maintenance of computational resources used to create simulated environments. Because digital environments can allow someone to simulate as much abundance as they can afford to divert attention to, objects have no value. Instead the only things of worth in these 'data markets' are bandwidth, memory, and secretive or unique information.
Many digital intelligences living in these markets put their expertise to work acquiring or generating unique information such as art or private data, or cutting edge research. Others work to aid or entertain other DIs in ways that are beyond the means of their ghost assistants, such as by renting out some of their bandwidth or memory allotment, or providing interpersonal social services.
Data markets make it difficult to maintain conventional governments within a simulation because of how little opportunity they provide for central planning or corporate organization. Some simulations have administration rights held in the hands of a select few digital intelligences or outside operators; they may arbitrarily impose their will on any DIs inhabiting the simulation, acting as oligarchs. In others the only thing resembling laws will be widespread social customs, and the restrictions coded into the simulation at its inception and imposed by the limitations of the hardware.
Some places make use of ubiquitous social networking and surveillance technologies to determine who gets preferential access to the few scarcities that still exist. Impressive and prosocial behaviors add up to "bumps" in measured reputation which applies to this end. Experts in memetics and creative industries share the upper classes with athletes using novel or cutting edge augmentations. Metatech expertise is a necessity to succeed in these environments.
Which Systems Apply to Whom?
Many systems can apply within the same Civilization based on various factors. I will add more Civilizations as I find the time to write on them.
The Association of Eternal Life: Corporate Capitalism, at first. All of their businesses are what Anders Sandberg would call 'Copyrations' which would be destabilizing in any other civilization because the Replicants can just copy a few supremely good individuals in any given field and have them do most of the work. The Replicant star systems are dominated by monopolies made up of a single person and their clones, who can do the work better than anyone else while still undercutting any competition through economies of scale. There will be menial tasks that Copyrations won't want to do, but those are handled readily enough by robots run by data ghosts. Young people looking to work, which is not necessary to live, will move to colonize other star systems. Many young people won't desire to work. Artistic activities are hard to monopolize due to variations in taste, so many will become artists or actors.
The Association of Stored Humans: Classic example of a Data Market. The costs involved in creating remotes are minuscule enough to not require a system of economics, so the only costs that matter besides imports from outside the Association revolve around their computational resources - or unique artistic/scientific data. There are likely controls in place to prevent long-term capital gains from causing an entire network to be dominated by a handful of Stored DIs. Positions in ad hoc task forces will likely be based on merit tracked through Reputation Systems, but are by definition temporary. Trade with outsiders may use Capitalist systems, but Stored are sufficiently intelligent that they need not incorporate to coordinate their import/export trading.
The Builders of the Great Beyond: Central Planning by the Elders for the Baseline Dynamic Builders. Since resources for day to day living are for the most part not scarce and don't require distribution systems for a civilization whose citizens are as smart as the Builders, the main issue is working to expand and defend the Great Beyond's hardware and to perform scientific research. The Great Beyond is their motivator for continued scientific development. The Elders will either use Data Markets among themselves, or create a separate hierarchy of Central Planning Committees.
The Cognitive Union: An efficient and effective hybrid of Central Planning and Collectivism. Everything is decided on by experts polled by the decentralized civic development schemata run on every citizen's Neural Mesh. Implementation is perfect because everyone fulfills their part in the plan. Innovation proceeds because the civic development schemata have determined that innovation is necessary, and all citizens necessary for technological advancement become involved in harmony with the others.