By default, SA uses superstring theory. I'm not quite how they're supposed to work, but if supersymmetry were false (in-setting), then seemingly the supersymmetric weaponry and possibly transmutation (It's supersymmetry-based too, right?) wouldn't exist. Unless there's some alternative mechanism to do the same things.
If loop quantum gravity were true rather than string theory, then stringtech is now called looptech, but other than that I'm not really sure. Ditto for other theories of quantum gravity.
If Extended Heim theory were true, hyperdrive, which is verboten (as mentioned in "Nonexistent Technology") becomes kosher. Also antigravity.
According to James Woodward in "Making Starships and Stargates", if topology change (tearing spacetime, rather than smooth deformations) is possible, then wormhole time travel into the arbitrarily distant past is possible, rather than just when the wormhole was created. He believes "neither time travel nor topology change are convincingly prohibited by any law of physics that merits acceptance as a truly fundamental law of reality. And as a noted physicist once said, “Anything that is not forbidden is mandatory.”" Sounds really interesting, though I'm not sure how this could be done in game terms.
Woodward also proposes the so-called Woodward effect (he calls it the Mach effect) which allows reactionless drives.
But the author is a physicist, so I'm sure he could come up with clarifications and more examples.