Cloning is a venerable technology dating back thousands of years, before even the Nanotech Wars and the Diaspora. The technique allows the asexual reproduction of an organism. Thousands of years ago, it was a very controversial technology, but in the face of replicators and stored humans, it is now very tame.
Early cloning techniques were problematic at best, requiring the use of host mothers and typically producing unhealthy clones. As the technology improved, it dealt with the cellular age and repairing the damage to the DNA of the donor cells. The introduction of the artificial womb, and improved knowledge of foetal development further refined it making it as safe as (if not safer) than unaided biological reproduction. Cloning does not allow the creation of an adult organism in less time than it would take to mature, but usually is used to produce an infant organism (or a baby), which is then raised to adulthood.
Tech Level: Biotech 3 for earliest introduction, Biotech 4 for it be safe, Biotech 5 for it to be fully implemented.
Cost: Moderate at all phases
A revolutionary medical technology that opened up a whole host of options for human reproduction, safer pregnancies and treatment of premature infants babies in the womb.
Tech Level: Biotech 4, Nanotech 4